The Traditional History

In common with and mirroring intentionally the approach adopted in the Old Charges, James Anderson’s account of freemasonry’s development ‘from the Beginning of the World’ is designed to set a literary context for the Craft. By positioning freemasonry as an ancient institution dating back to Adam, in Anderson’s words, ‘out first parent’, the narrative gives the new Grand Lodge of England legitimacy and an antiquarian status, and offers an aura and attraction that a recently formed organisation would have found difficult to attain.

Tony Baker’s Paper, Lionel Vibert and the 1723 Constitutions‘ explores this in greater depth.

Freemasonry’s perceived longevity conferred kudos in a tradition-based society but few would have taken the history as a literal and truthful record of events. It was then and should now be viewed as falling within a schematic of literary hyperbole. Indeed, a similar approach was followed in the 1750s when the ‘The Grand Lodge of England according to the Old Institutions’, a rival grand lodge, adopted the name ‘Antients’ and Laurence Dermott, their Grand Secretary, disparaged the Grand Lodge of England as ‘Moderns’ to assert the greater credibility of the younger of the two bodies.

Several historians have assigned to Anderson sole authorship of the 1723 Constitutions. That this is improbable is discussed in ‘The Protagonists‘, which puts forward the argument that Anderson was more probably a ‘hired pen’ working under the principal direction of Jean Theophilus Desaguliers and the publishers, Senex and Hooke. And although Anderson’s traditional history is quantitively the largest component of the 1723 Constitutions, it is and should be viewed as of secondary importance to the Charges and General Regulations.

A number of commentators including Brendan Kyne and Mike Kearsley have suggested that although Freemasonry adopted 4000 BCE as its nominal year of inception, this was not linked to Archbishop Ussher (1581-1656) and his dating of creation to 23 October 4004 BCE. Kyne and Kearsley suggest instead that the date may be associated with Sir Isaac Newton’s historical calculations. Newton, although not a Freemason, influenced many of the founders of the Grand Lodge of England (then known as the Grand Lodge of London and Westminster). If so, the letters ‘AL’ on Masonic membership certificates are less likely to stand for Anno Lucis, the Year of Light, but rather Anno Latomorum, the Year of Masonry, as printed on the cover page of the 1723 Constitutions.