The Noble Grand Masters

Four Grand Masters were involved directly and indirectly with the publication of the 1723 Constitutions. This section looks at each of John, 2nd Duke of Montagu, the outgoing Grand Master, during whose tenure the 1723 Constitutions were formulated; Philip, Duke of Wharton, his successor, who approved their publication; Francis Scott, the Earl of Dalkeith, who followed Wharton; and Charles, 2nd Duke of Richmond and Lennox, the Master of the Horn Tavern Lodge, London’s largest and most influential Masonic lodge, and one of the driving forces behind the changes that took place in English Freemasonry.